Cholera: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention--Health tips fit - health tips fit

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Thursday, 18 June 2020

Cholera: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention--Health tips fit


Cholera Pathogen
 The local cholera disappeared in 1965. The understanding is related to raw turtle eggs, and more particularly this is the first new Vibrio cholerae O-139 Bengal type in China. Recently, Hong Kong residents have contracted cholera after visiting Thailand, which has caused people to pay attention to the cholera epidemic at home and abroad.
Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio cholerae serotypes O1 and O139, which produce enterotoxins, can cause cholera outbreaks.

Symptoms

Most patients have no symptoms or only mild diarrhea. Some patients may experience severe diarrhea and vomiting with watery stools. Failure to receive proper treatment in time may result in death due to severe dehydration.

The clinical symptoms of cholera are mainly severe diarrhea and vomiting. The patient usually does not have a fever. The water released is slightly gray, sometimes mucus, blood-free, and slightly sweet. It is described as after washing the rice. Water ('rice-water' stool). Because the water loss caused by diarrhea sometimes reaches 8-12% of the body weight, there will be a drop in blood pressure, dry skin and loss of elasticity, sunken eyes, sunken cheeks, or even reduced urine or urine, and due to electrolyte imbalance There are symptoms of muscle cramps.


way of spreading

Cholera is usually spread by eating food or water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Interpersonal communication is not common.

Incubation period

It ranges from a few hours to five days, usually two to three days.


The main method of treating cholera is to add enough water in time. Patients with mild dehydration can be treated with oral rehydration saline solution. If the patient suffers from severe dehydration, the lost water and electrolytes must be replaced by intravenous injection. Antibiotics can also be used when needed.

Prevention methods

1.  personal hygiene

Always keep your hands clean, especially before handling food or eating, and after going to the toilet. When washing hands, clean hands with liquid soap and water, rub hands for at least 20 seconds, rinse with water and dry with paper towels or hand dryer. If there are no hand washing facilities or there is no obvious dirt on the hands, it is also an effective method to clean the hands with 70 to 80% alcohol hand rub.
When cleaning or handling vomit and feces, gloves and masks must be worn, and hands must be washed thoroughly afterwards.
Patients or carriers should not handle food and take care of children, the elderly, and people who lack immunity.
People with gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea should not go to work or school and should consult a doctor.
2.  food hygiene

Only drink boiled tap water or bottled beverages from reliable merchants.
Avoid drinking beverages made from ice cubes of unknown origin.
Buy fresh food from hygienic and reliable places, and do not patronize unlicensed hawkers.
People at high risk and those who want to reduce the risk of food borne illness should avoid eating raw and uncooked food.
Five points of food safety should be followed when handling food, namely smart choice (choose safe raw materials), keep clean (keep hands and utensils clean), separate raw and cooked (separate raw and cooked food), cooked food (completely cooked food) And safe temperature (store food at safe temperature) to prevent food-borne diseases.

3.environmental hygiene

Keep sanitary facilities and drainage systems functioning properly.
The toilets and places contaminated by excreta used by patients should be properly cleaned and disinfected. Gloves and masks must be worn during the process.
Use disposable rags to wipe off vomit/overflow feces, and then use 1:49 diluted household bleach to clean and disinfect contaminated areas and nearby areas Within a range of 2 meters), especially in places that are frequently touched, such as door handles and handrails. Leave the bleach on the surface of the contaminated area for 15 – 30 minutes to thoroughly disinfect it, then rinse with water and dry. The metal surface should be disinfected with 70% alcohol.
Never use a mop to clean up vomitus.
After disinfection, the cleaning utensils must be soaked in 1 to 49 diluted household bleach for 30 minutes, then rinsed thoroughly and allowed to air dry before being used again.
After all cleaning work is completed, hands must be washed thoroughly.
Advice for tourists


Except for some high-risk persons , passengers are generally not recommended to receive oral cholera vaccine. At present, there are no official regulations in all countries that require passengers to present a cholera vaccination certificate as a condition of entry. For more information, please visit the Tourism Health Service website of the Department of Health.




Treatment

 The most important thing for the treatment of cholera is to quickly replenish body fluids. For milder patients, electrolyte supplements can be taken orally (the World Health Organization has its recommended ingredient formula). For more severe patients, intravenous injection can be used to supplement water and electrolytes. Oral antibiotics can shorten the course of the disease and reduce the severity of diarrhea. Tetracycline is the drug of choice. For children younger than eight years old, they are treated with erythromycin, furazolidone or co trimazole. Although the mortality rate of cholera is less than 1%, the mortality rate can be as high as 30% in a community that has been infected for the first time and has no knowledge of cholera without proper treatment. For example, until 1991, there have been no cases of cholera in Latin America for more than 100 years, so an outbreak can cause rapid spread and serious illness at the early stage. Wait for people and medical staff to understand the status of cholera and the epidemic. Only effective control can be achieved, and the mortality rate can be reduced to less than 1%. This shows that it is of particular importance to control the epidemic situation and protect the health of the people of the country when cholera is only beginning to have a case in Taiwan.

 To prevent cholera, one must understand the route of transmission. Food contaminated with Vibrio cholera, especially aquatic products, and contaminated water are the source of infection in the early stage of the disease. If it is in the epidemic period, family members of cholera patients have about 4 to 22% chance of daily contact due to daily exposure Infected. Therefore, in addition to the government's efforts to strengthen the epidemic prevention measures, if there are cases, the relevant contacts, such as dining at the same table or traveling with a companion, must be subject to inspection and health surveillance, and the source of food needs to be inspected. Vibrio cholerae is very afraid of heat, so when eating aquatic products, do not use raw food. As for traveling abroad to epidemic areas , if you have any discomfort , you should seek medical treatment as soon as possible. This will not only protect your life and health, but also greatly help control the epidemic of this infectious disease.

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