Vitamin K Deficiency - Nutritional Disorders - Health tips fit - health tips fit

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Thursday, 18 June 2020

Vitamin K Deficiency - Nutritional Disorders - Health tips fit


Vitamin K deficiency
The green vegetables are rich in vitamin K. The human body lacks vitamin K. Bleeding is main manifestation such as bruising of the skin and bleeding gums.
Vitamin K is an essential fat soluble vitamin that plays an important role in the blood clotting process. Vitamin K is high in green leafy vegetables and various edible oils such as soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed, and olive oil. Vitamin K deficiency can occur at any age, but infants are the most common. Low levels of vitamin K delivered to the fetus through the placenta, low levels of vitamin K in breast milk, and small amounts of vitamin K synthesized by infants' intestinal bacteria can cause...
Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in the blood clotting process. Vitamin K content is high in green leafy vegetables and various edible oils such as soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and olive oil. There are three main types of vitamin K: K-1 comes from plants; K-2 is produced by intestinal flora; K-3 is a synthetic water-soluble vitamin K. Vitamin K deficiency...

Physiological function
Vitamin K is a co factor in the blood clotting process. The coagulation factor precursor is converted into an activated form, γ-carboxyglutamic acid, by vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase .In this process, vitamin K-dependent proteins are bound to the surface of phospholipids through calcium ion channels, thus starting the normal thrombosis process. Vitamin K is a co factor for carboxylase, and its mechanism of action is not yet clear. Bone matrix protein, especially osteocalcin.
Delayed hemorrhagic diseases in newborns can be delayed until 3 months after birth. Because vitamin K is involved in the γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin, it is an important part of bone synthesis. Osteoporosis is closely related to vitamin K deficiency.

Prognosis
If patients with vitamin K deficiency can be identified early and treated appropriately, the prognosis is good. There have been no reports of death due to vitamin K deficiency. However, if vitamin K deficiency is not controlled, severe bleeding may occur. The incidence of bleeding is related to the severity of vitamin K deficiency.
Low vitamin K delivery through the placenta, immature liver prothrombin synthesis function, insufficient vitamin K content in breast milk, and the aseptic state of the newborn’s intestine are all causes of vitamin K deficiency in infants .In adults, the causes of vitamin K deficiency include · Chronic diseases · Malnutrition · Alcoholism · Repeated abdominal surgery · Long-term parenteral nutrition · Malabsorption · Cholestatic diseases ·

Epidemiology
Vitamin K deficiency can occur at any age and is most common in infants. The incidence of vitamin K deficiency varies in different regions .The incidence of asymptomatic vitamin K deficiency in infants and children under 5 years of age can be as high as 50%. 0.25-1.7% of babies can show obvious bleeding symptoms. 

Medical history and physical examination
Medical history Prothrombinemia is of diagnostic significance. Bleeding, especially after minor trauma, is the main symptom of vitamin K deficiency.
Diagnosis
The diagnosis of bleeding disorders should first exclude vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K deficiency-related bleeding and hepatic failure-related bleeding are best identified by measuring the content of coagulation factor V. Factor V is synthesized by the liver and does not depend on vitamin K. In patients with severe liver disease, factor V and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors are all reduced; in patients with vitamin K deficiency, factor V levels are normal.

Differential diagnosis
1. Identify all bleeding disorders.
2. Abnormal liver function induced bleeding: the best method for distinguishing bleeding related to vitamin K deficiency and bleeding related to liver failure is to determine the content of coagulation factor V. Factor V is synthesized by the liver and does not depend on vitamin K. In patients with severe liver disease, factor V and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors are all reduced; in patients with vitamin K deficiency, factor V levels are normal.

Treatment principles
Treatment of vitamin K deficiency depends on the severity of bleeding and the underlying disease state. The most effective treatment is vitamin K supplementation. Note that hematoma may appear at the injection site. For life-threatening bleeding, fresh frozen plasma needs to be supplemented before vitamin K is given. In adults, vitamin K-1 can be injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly. If PT cannot be corrected after vitamin K supplementation, you need to consider the possible existence.

Patients should consult a hematologist and gastro enterologist. Hematologists can help patients rule out other diseases that are similar to vitamin K deficiency. Gastro enterologists can help patients exclude diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, malabsorption and liver disease that cause vitamin K deficiency.

Diet
Foods rich in vitamin K are: oils, such as: olive oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil and soybean oil; various green leafy vegetables, common are: peas, broad beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli; and oats, whole wheat.

Drug
The purpose of drug treatment is to correct vitamin K deficiency and prevent complications. Newborns are usually given vitamin K intra muscularly to prevent bleeding. In adults, vitamin K-1 is generally given subcutaneously or intra muscularly.  Some small studies have shown that preventive medication of vitamin K in newborns may increase the risk of cancer in the future.


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